The term neurourology refers to diagnosis of and therapy for dysfunctions of the bladder and sphincter muscle, as well as sexual dysfunction. This is due to the defective nerve supply to the organs in question. Dysfunctions of the urinary tract occur as part of many clinical pictures, in particular in the event of a damaged spinal cord, such as with paraplegia or a meningomyelocele.
Neurological diseases (e.g. multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and stroke), metabolic diseases (e.g. diabetes mellitus) and injuries to the nerves (e.g. following a disc prolapse) can also cause neurogenic bladder and sexual function disorders.